Adapting Forex Strategies To Los Angeles Economic Trends


Adapting Forex Strategies To Los Angeles Economic Trends – Microplastics in the Deep: Comparison of Food and Plastic Ingestion Data Between Two Bathyal Opportunistic Feeder Species, Galeus melastomus, Rafinesque, 1810 and Coelorinchus caelorhincus (Risso, 1810), by analysis of stomach contents.

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Adapting Forex Strategies To Los Angeles Economic Trends

Adapting Forex Strategies To Los Angeles Economic Trends

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Received: 20 March 2022 / Revised: 27 April 2022 / Accepted: 29 April 2022 / Published: 2 May 2022

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In order to combat climate change, efforts are being made to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in all industries. The shipping sector is also one of the GHG emitting industries, including carbon. Another way to reduce GHG emissions in the shipping sector is to use shore power (SP) instead of auxiliary engines during navigation. Port authorities are expanding SP facilities because it is possible to achieve long-term goals of environmental benefits and green ports. However, the low economic feasibility of SP is a stumbling block for ship operators. Therefore, in this study, an economic analysis of the use of SP is carried out by the size of the ship from the point of view of the ship operators by considering the benefits from the difference in oil and electricity prices, the benefits from reducing carbon emissions, and the incentives from the port authorities. . The result of the analysis showed that the profit in oil price and the converted profit in reducing carbon emissions increased according to the size of the fleet. An economic analysis of a single port confirmed that small vessels providing feeder services presented economic viability due to low installation costs and an increasing number of calls, while economic insufficiency was presented to larger vessels above the old Panamax category due to increased installation costs. However, the economic feasibility varies greatly depending on whether port incentives are offered, and it was estimated that even large vessels would be able to secure the economic feasibility of using SP if additional calls were made to ports that provide similar policy benefits.

Another recent global concern is GHG (greenhouse gas) reduction. It was analyzed that in order to keep the global temperature increase within 2 °C, the global GHG emissions should be reduced by 40~70% in 2050 compared to 2010, and the level should be kept close to 0 by 2100 [1]. This GHG emission situation calls for the enforcement of strict emission regulations in all industries. The transportation industry is also one of the private industries that reduce GHG emissions. Based on the BAU (business as usual) scenario, which is implemented under the assumption that there are no new regulations affecting energy efficiency and carbon intensity, the CO

Carbon emissions in the transport sector will increase from 1000 Mt in 2018 to 1000-1500 Mt in 2050, an increase of 0-50% [2].

Adapting Forex Strategies To Los Angeles Economic Trends

Accordingly, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) aims to reduce the carbon footprint of international shipping in order to reduce GHG emissions. Ships are required to adapt their technology and operating methods to meet the IMO’s requirements to reduce carbon emissions. However, many ways to reduce carbon emissions are strongly affected by sea conditions, routes, and shipping patterns [3]. One way to reduce these effects and reduce carbon emissions from ships in a sustainable way is to reduce the carbon produced during the voyage. One such way is to limit carbon dioxide emissions during travel through beach use. Shore power or shore power (OPS) is known as AMP (alternative maritime power), cold ironing, shore power, etc., and refers to the use of shore power, not the ship’s auxiliary diesel engine for propulsion. port electricity [4]. Generally, when a ship is in port, an auxiliary diesel engine must be used to provide electricity to equipment such as lights, air conditioners, pumps, cranes, etc., and these engines usually use fuel oil such as HFO, MGO, or MDO. and emit pollutants into the atmosphere [5].

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Since shore power is another way to reduce gas emissions in ports, it is not mandatory but is already being used in major ports in the United States, Europe, and Asia. It was estimated that if one-fourth to two-thirds of the US ports were offshored, the economic benefits from improved air quality could increase by USD 70-150 million every year [6]. When coastal energy is used in EU ports, the health benefits are expected to be around EUR 2.94 billion in 2020, and carbon emissions are expected to decrease by 800, 000 tons [7]. The IMO has decided that such efforts are needed by the port authorities in view of all efforts for environmental benefits and reduction of carbon emissions carried out throughout the shipping industry [8]. In line with these changes, port authorities have been gradually installing shore power services. However, the ship operator, the ultimate decision maker for shore power consumption, has a different view. They may not use offshore power unless sufficient economic feasibility is proven. Therefore, to actively use the energy on the coast, it is necessary to analyze the benefits that can be obtained by ship operators. These benefits may also vary depending on the make of the ships owned by the ship operator. Therefore, in this study, the factors of benefits from the difference in fuel oil and electricity prices using onshore energy and the benefits from reducing carbon emissions are identified by the size of the container ship. In addition, it aims to improve decision-making regarding the use of coastal energy and the installation of ship services by ship operators by conducting an economic analysis taking into account the incentives offered to ports. Port authorities will also be able to set policy guidelines for ship operators based on these results.

This study is divided into six sections. In Section 2, after the Introduction, major previous studies related to coastal energy use are reviewed to confirm the major aspects under consideration. Section 3 analyzes the basic information and situation related to boats and ships and presents an analysis method that can ensure the benefits that can be achieved by ship operators. In Section 4, based on the results of the analysis, the characteristics of benefits by container size and the economic feasibility of the use of coastal energy in one port were evaluated by the size of the container ship. Section 5 summarizes the significance of the results presented in Section 4, followed by Section 6, with a final conclusion and explanation of the study’s limitations.

Air pollutants from ships are very different. The IMO and individual national governments apply different regulations for each polluting area. These regulations affect a range of areas; for example, the Sulfur Emission Control Area (SECA), designed to limit sulfur emissions, is reported to affect biological ecosystems, cultural heritage, health, and the economic viability of shipping companies and ports [9]. Such far-reaching effects include unintended consequences beyond the intent of the regulations. ECA regulations recommend reducing the speed of ships to reduce CO

The discharge increased due to the increase in speed outside the ECA section [10]. Some analyzes have shown that restrictive regulations such as “IMO 2020”, which were used to reduce sulfur content, caused CO.

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Emissions will increase by 30% due to the limited sulfur content in fuel oil [11]. Sometimes, other ways of responding to such laws have practical problems. An expert analysis using the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and the Višekriteri-jumsko kompromisno rangiranje (VIKOR) method discussed the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a measure to reduce air pollution from ships, taking into account technical, economic, environmental, and socio-political factors. [12]. However, the problem of methane leakage caused by the use of LNG showed that it is only a temporary solution to reduce GHG [13].

On the other hand, coastal energy is one of the ways to achieve environmental benefits related to air pollution equally, beyond the limits of laws and other methods. Analysis of container ships in major ports in

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