**Hull’s Financial Edge: Easy Money Strategies In Forex Trading And Mining** – $7.8 million, the expected shortfall satisfies the subadditivity condition for the example. A measure can be characterized by the weights it assigns to the quantiles of the loss distribution. The VAR gives 100% weighting to the X quantile and zero to the other quantiles. The expected shortfall gives equal weight to all quantiles greater than the Xth quantile and zero weight to all quantiles below the Xth quantile. We can define what is known as a spectral measure by making other assumptions about the weights assigned to the quantiles. A general result is that a spectral measure is consistent (ie satisfies the subadditivity condition) if the weight assigned to the qth quantile of the loss distribution is a non-decreasing function of q. Expected deficiency meets this requirement. VAR, however, fails because the weights assigned to quantiles greater than X are less than the weight assigned to quantile X. Conclusions VAR is widely used by regulators and therefore its importance as a measure will not diminish. However, expected deficiency has many advantages over VAR. This has led many financial institutions to use it as an internal measure. 1 This is to simplify the calculations. If the loans default independently of each other, with two possible defaults, the numbers are very different, but the VAR of the portfolio is still greater than the sum of the VARs of the individual loans. References Artzner P, F Delbaen, J-M Eber and D Heath, 1999 Coherent measurements of Mathematical Finance 9(3), pages 203-228 Hull J, 2006 management and financial institutions Prentice Hall This is an edited extract from John Hull’s book. Financial Institutions, published by Prentice Hall in 2006. John Hull is the Maple Professor of Derivatives and Management at the University of Toronto’s Joseph L Rotman School of Management.

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## Hull’s Financial Edge: Easy Money Strategies In Forex Trading And Mining

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The industry welcomes the proposal to remove the ban on using repo funds as eligible IMs, but some have warned that the MMF is bringing them up.

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To use this feature, you will need an individual account. If you already have one, log in. â€śArbitrage is the simultaneous buying and selling of an asset in order to profit from one side of the price. It is a trade that makes a profit by taking advantage of the price differences of the same or similar financial instruments in different markets or in different forms. Arbitrage exists because of market inefficienciesâ€ť – Investopedia HOW HIGH FREQUENCY TRADING COMPANIES USE THE ARBITRAGE OPPORTUNITY IN THE STOCK MARKET

With today’s technology, stock prices are updated within milliseconds of real time. This is much faster than a human is capable of doing calculations, which makes it difficult to find arbitrage opportunities in the financial markets. As a result, day trading companies are using computers to perform algorithmic electronic trading at a speed that is impossible for humans. The way this works is that you give the computer a set of instructions, which will cause the stock to be bought or sold. These instructions can be related to price, time, volume or a mathematical model. For example, you write an algorithm that tells the computer to buy 1000 Tesla shares whenever the price goes above $200 and sell if the stock price rises 10% above the purchase price. For more reading on arbitrage and algorithmic trading, check out the links.

Michael Lewis’s non-fiction book “Flash Boys” tells how high-frequency trading (HFT) firms used a super-fast fiber-optic cable that connected New York’s financial markets to Chicago for arbitrage trading. This $300 million cable reduced data travel time from 17 to 13 milliseconds. An advantage, as HFT firms were able to get better prices on their trades compared to their competitors.

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To illustrate how this works in practice, let’s assume that a hedge fund wants to buy 100,000 shares of Tesla stock. This purchase will be split across multiple exchanges to ensure they get the best possible price on the purchase. As a result, 60,000 shares are bought on the Nasdaq at $200 per share, but when someone buys a company’s stock, the price will go up. So only a limited number of shares are available for $200. Tesla’s share price rises to $202 on the Nasdaq after the purchase. So the hedge fund will consider buying the remaining 40,000 shares at a better price on another stock exchange. On the London Stock Exchange (LSE), Tesla remains at $201 because the price has not yet been updated. What happens is that the HFT firm will notice that someone has bought a large amount of Tesla shares on the Nasdaq, so they will use their faster cable connection to buy Tesla shares on the London Stock Exchange before the price rises to $202. So let’s say the HFT firm buys Tesla shares at $201 on the LSE. They then sell the stock to the hedge fund for $201.99 and pocket a profit of 99 cents per share. All these events happen in a couple of milliseconds and enable companies to conduct business using complex computer algorithms. In reality, the price difference is likely to come down to 1 cent or less, rather than the 99 cents used in this example. However, if the HFT firm is able to make thousands of such trades during the day, the profits will end up being large amounts. According to the Harvard Politics article, the HFT market made $5 billion in profits in 2009, but fell to $1.25 billion in 2014. Additionally, HFT trading accounted for 73% of total daily market volume on US exchanges in 2014. One possible explanation for this decline can be found in the macroeconomic principle of perfect competition, which states that economic profits within an industry will attract new firms to the industry. Increased competition will lead to lower corporate profits and in the long run the industry will reach a state of perfect competition, an equilibrium where industry profits are equal to zero. A second possible explanation is that stock exchanges have improved their connections, which has reduced the relative edge that faster connections give HFT firms.

According to Investopedia’s definition, arbitrage opportunities exist due to market inefficiencies, which allow investors to exploit price differences. So it’s not just limited to investing in stocks, but in any market where these options exist. As a result, HFT firms also trade other types of securities, such as bonds, futures and swaps. The rest of this article will focus on price inefficiency in sports markets.

In the world of sports betting, there are house houses where you bet against the house and betting exchanges where you bet against other people. The latter can be compared to a traditional stock market, the main difference being that traders buy and sell bets on the outcome of events such as a football match rather than securities. What makes the sports market interesting from a trading perspective is that it is more efficient than financial markets, which creates arbitrage opportunities. On the free oddsportal.com website, one can compare the odds of a game provided by different bookmakers and betting exchanges, which allows you to see with your own eyes the inefficiencies in the sports market. I have included a screenshot of the odds from different bookmakers on the Liverpool-Manchester United game played on 17.10.2016.

The odds of a game’s outcome are what bookmakers believe is the probability of that outcome. The probability of an outcome is equal to the inverse of the probability, in addition, it must be adjusted to the bookmaker’s payout rate, which is the amount of money they return to their customers. For example, Mybet has a 90% payout rate, which means they take a 10% cut of the money placed on this game. Next, let’s compare the odds offered by two different bookmakers.

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