Combining Multiple Indicators For Enhanced Profitability In Singapore Forex

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Combining Multiple Indicators For Enhanced Profitability In Singapore Forex

Combining Multiple Indicators For Enhanced Profitability In Singapore Forex

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By Wei-Chao Lin Wei-Chao Lin Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2, 3, * and Ching Chen Ching Chen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1

Received: Oct 30, 2021 / Revised: Dec 5, 2021 / Accepted: Dec 13, 2021 / Published: Dec 15, 2021

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World university rankings are recognized as an important tool for evaluating the quality of higher education. There are several media sources that publish world university rankings every year. The results of the rankings are mainly based on academic indicators, including research and teaching, with various weightings. However, some of these academic indicators raise doubts, which affects the objectivity of the ranking results. In addition, conducting more medical-related studies could improve the outcome of research outcomes. Some colleges that are dedicated to raising these academic metrics are losing sight of their original goals and development directions. In order to make the rankings more comprehensive, it is necessary to take into account different points of view in the assessment. In other words, the research question of this article is: can including different types of metrics lead to better ranking results? Therefore, in this article, we present a novel ranking approach that combines academic, environmental, and resource metrics based on the Borda counting method. The top 100 universities in the world from the Academic Ranking of World Universities, QS World University Rankings, Times Higher Education World Universities and U.S. Universities are selected for analysis. News & World Report. Comparisons of the original and new rankings show that many universities are improving in their rankings, while some universities from individual countries are falling in the rankings due to their performance in environmental and resource indicators.

Higher education is very important for national economies. In developing and developed countries, the number of knowledge-based industries is constantly growing [1]. Moreover, the most common core values ​​included in the mission statements of universities are research, education and students [2]. According to Marope et al. [3] As many countries have placed great emphasis on knowledge transfer and management, the international cultivation of talent has become a major educational policy. As a result, global universities must demonstrate international competitiveness to attract potential students. This makes rankings essential for evaluating and evaluating higher education [4, 5, 6]. Currently, several well-known media sources such as Times Higher Education World University Rankings, QS World University Rankings, Academic Ranking of World Universities and Top World University Rankings annually publish world university rankings based on academic indicators.

Since getting high rankings can improve the reputation of universities, many universities focus on the quality of teaching and research for better grades. In other words, university rankings greatly influence universities’ pursuit of excellence in teaching and research, which can not only respond to student expectations but also attract more local and international students. Moreover, university rankings influence government and industry perspectives on universities and influence related policies.

Combining Multiple Indicators For Enhanced Profitability In Singapore Forex

In general, university rankings can help improve courses of study, assess the global higher education market, improve the quality of teaching, etc. [7, 8]. In particular, the quality of higher education is related to the employability of students [9]. Moreover, students who graduate from highly rated universities are likely to have higher incomes, better health and a higher quality of life [10]. They testify to the importance of university rankings for universities and students.

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However, some of the existing higher education evaluation indicators, while important, greatly influence the activities of many universities, causing universities to focus on these indicators for better ranking results. For example, one of the research quality metrics in the QS World University Rankings is based on peer reviews. In addition, the ranking result may vary significantly depending on the nature of the selected indicators. This means that some universities can improve their rankings due to good resources and environment, specific research topics, etc. In particular, the allocation of privileges and resources to world-leading universities can be detrimental to other medical research universities [11, 12, 13]. research and collaboration with well-known researchers can bring huge benefits [14], and the specific amounts of funding obtained from other countries [15] are just some of the objective factors that are not taken into account in existing indicators of world university rankings.

Moreover, the existing indicators do not take into account differences between universities in terms of environment, resource allocation and factors such as demographics, gross domestic product (GDP), educational performance, structure of school assets. This means that if related environmental and resource metrics are omitted, the ranking results may not be complete to some extent. In other words, only the use of existing higher education evaluation and assessment indicators can cause some universities to occupy relatively low positions in rankings and limit their future development.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to introduce related environmental and resource metrics to complement existing academic metrics for more complete university ranking results. The purpose of this paper is to combine existing academic indicators with related environmental indicators and resources to create more comprehensive rankings. In addition, the impact of the new rankings on various regional universities is being studied.

The rest of this article is organized as follows. Part 2 reviews media related to world university rankings. In addition, assessment metrics that are based on open data and surveys are discussed. Part 3 describes the research methodology of this article. Chapter 4 presents the research results, and Chapter 5 concludes the work.

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The university ranking is now a key indicator used around the world to assess the quality of higher education. This evaluation system has been in operation for over twenty-five years [16]. Currently, several well-known media outlets publish world university rankings, such as the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), Times Higher Education (THE), QS World University (QS) and U.S. News & World Report (USNWR). Below is an overview of these sources.

ARWU is run by the CWCU of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. It is considered one of the three most influential university rankings and is based on consistent and rigorous metrics, with the strength of objectivity, stability and transparency. The assessment indicators cover four criteria, including quality of education (10%), quality of academic staff (40%), research performance (40%) and results per capita (10%).

Among these indicators, the number of university graduates who have won Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals (as part of education quality) is questionable, as the evaluation period is based on 100 years [17, 18, 19]. This indicator can be used by universities with a long tradition [20, 21]. The weight of research achievements including articles published in Nature and Science and indexed in SCIE and SSCI was 70%. In 2014 it was changed to 40%. This shows that weighting should be done carefully as weighting can affect ranking results.

Combining Multiple Indicators For Enhanced Profitability In Singapore Forex

The QS World University Rankings, published by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS), is also recognized as one of the top three most influential university rankings. Moreover, it is the only university ranking approved by IREG (International Ranking Expert Group), which can provide consistent and complete ranking results [22].

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Universities are assessed using six metrics including academic reputation (40%), employer reputation (10%), faculty to student ratio (20%), citations per faculty (20%), international faculty rate and international student rate (10%) . Among these indicators, peer reviews and/or opinions of education experts, i.e. academic reputation, have a large influence on the results of the rankings. For example, in 2006, the academic reputation response rate was estimated to be less than 1%, corresponding to approximately 1,600 responses out of 190,000 [23, 24]. In 2007, 2008 and 2009, 3069, 6354 and 9386 responses were received respectively. To date, 70,000 responses have been collected. This means that the response rate is growing rapidly and the responses can significantly affect the ranking score. Since anyone can provide an answer on the Internet, this method raises doubts from the point of view of the qualifications of reviewers [21, 25, 26, 27].

Thomson Reuters has since published the Times Higher Education World University Rankings

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